Practical Exercises On The Use Of Linking Words And Phrases

1 Read the items below and say whether the second sentence presents an additional or contrasting point. Then, join the sentences using appropriate words/phrases.
1 Alternative medicines treat the symptoms of a disease. Conventional medicines treat the underlying cause of a disorder.
2 Alternative medicine makes use of natural products rather than drugs. Alternative medicines are not tested on animals.
3 Conventional doctors have recognis¬able and respected qualifications. Conventional treatments are widely available to everyone.
4 People trust conventional treatments because they are tested scientifically. People are often suspicious of alter¬native methods which sometimes rely on a "trial and error" technique.
5 Alternative treatments cause few or no side-effects. Conventional treatments can cause severe side-effects.

2 Fill in the gaps using words/phrases from the list. Some words/phrases can be used more than once.
up to a point, especially, indeed, this means, needless to say, in general, in fact, the fact that, obviously, example

1 ……………………………………. , people have mixed feelings about the effects tourism has on a country.
2 Most people believe that computers always make life easier, but………………………………….. , the opposite is sometimes true since they often cause problems when they break down.
3 ………………………………….testing products on animals is cruel, but it is difficult to find a suitable alternative.
4 A typical …………………………… of the benefits of country life is the fact that there is very little pollution from traffic.
5 …………………………………….. more and more zoos are closing down shows that fewer people agree with keeping animals in captivity and, therefore, do not want to visit them any longer.
6 Using public transport can be a nuisance, ………………………………… when buses and trains are late during rush hour periods.
7 Advances in medical science mean that cures have been found for many diseases. …………………………… people live longer nowadays.
8 …………………………………., most people agree that more effort should be made where the recycling of materials is concerned.
9 More and more women are going back to work after the birth of their children and ………………………………. they have to find someone to look after the children during the day.

3 Join the sentences using the linking words in the list below.
due to, in addition to, on the grounds, therefore, with the intention of
1 The government has launched a campaign to promote new business rural areas. They hope to draw p away from the large urban centres.
2 Television is a highly entertaining medium. It can also be an excellent educational tool.
3 Freedom of expression is one of man's basic, inalienable rights. People should be allowed to publish books containing all their beliefs and ideas.
4 Consumerism is becoming more and more apart of modern societies. This is because of advertising and the mass media.
5 Many people object to smoking. This is because passive smoking can be extremely harmful to one's health.

4 Replace the phrases in bold with other similar ones.
1 All things considered, I believe that corporal punishment should not be reintroduced into our schools as it is a cruel method of disciplining students.
2 Lastly, it may be concluded that freedom of speech is a basic right of every individual, regardless of race or creed.
3 To conclude, I am convinced that all the governments of the world should embark immediately on a joint policy of total disarmament.
4 To conclude, it is clear that in the light of the many miscarriages of justice in the past, capital punishment is not ethical or humane, and should be abandoned entirely.
5 In conclusion, it is my opinion that school uniforms are an unfortunate necessity and therefore should not be abolished.

Works consulted
Taken from "Successful Writing Proficiency" by Virginia Evans

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